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Understanding Parkinson's Disease



There have been some interesting articles published in September that give some detailed nuances about Parkinson’s Disease. These details are sure to provide good understanding of the disease and its various aspects.


Some articles cover how PD spreads in brain due to neuron’s inability to breakdown certain alpha-synuclein proteins which are ejected as a waste but which keep aggregating in the brain there by creating nuisance. It also highlights the need to control this waste generation process to control the disease. Some other article highlights how hospital-treated infections may reveal the pre-existing PD, especially if this happens at an early age (under 60).

The article about bad bacteria in nasal microbiome triggering PD revealed how our nasal olfactory function can impact neuro-degenerative diseases. Some other articles provide some more details about PD types and PD dementia.



Following are some of the interesting articles on tech advancements:


1)

How Parkinson’s Disease spreads in the brain?

As per recent finding by top medical researchers, a cellular waste ejection process spreads a protein called alpha-synuclein in the brain. Aggregates of this protein in responsible for Parkinson’s Disease. Neurons cannot breakdown or recycle this waste and hence it ejects this protein. This is a pathbreaking discovery and may lead to new treatment and preventions. A lot is still to be explored, but one important discovery is that by controlling the rate of this waste ejection process, the spread of disease may be controlled.


Following is the link to the original source:


2)

Hospital treated infections and PD

If a person is treated in hospital for infections, in early or midlife, it increases his / her risk of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease. This is especially valid for those who got diagnosed with these diseases before the age of 60. This may suggest that infectious events may reveal the already-existing disease process and result in clinical beginning of neurodegenerative disease at an early age. However, this finding may not prove the causality between these events.


Following is the link to the original source:


3)

Nasal microbiome and PD

Our nose is a home to billions of microorganisms (fungi, bacteria and archaea). Microbiota in the nasal cavity reach the brain via olfactory function, thereby affecting the functioning of nervous system. As per the recent study, population of nasal bacteria does influence the processing of olfactory functions and neuro-degeneration, especially for patients of PD. About 104 strains of bacteria are found in brain (though the prominent ones are only 2-10 species. While most bacteria are harmless, some are opportunist pathobionts and cause various illnesses. Olfactory sensory neurons are highly vulnerable to toxins like herbicides and pesticides and may lead to diseases like PD.


Following is the link to the original source:


4)

Types of Parkinson’s Disease

There are three main types of PD as per a hospital:

Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease: Here underlying cause can not be identified. This involves tremors, rigidity and slowness.

Vascular Parkinsonism: PD patients who have been diagnosed with poor cerebral blood flow are of this type.

Drug induced Parkinsonism: This is most common among those who use neuroleptics that inhibit dopamine’s activity.


Following is the link to original source:


5)

Understanding dementia in Parkinson’s Disease

PD can cause a condition named Parkinson’s Disease dementia, which involves decline in thinking, reasoning and problem-solving. Almost 50-80% patients of PD eventually experience this condition.

83% of those living with PD for over 20 years develop dementia. On an average, 10 years after onset of PD, patients develop dementia. As dementia advances, management of confusion, disorientation, agitation and impulsivity become important part of care. Some patients also experience hallucinations, delusions. Care givers need to keep the patients calm and should ensure they reduce stress.

Common symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease dementia are:

Change in appetite, changes in energy levels, confusions, delusions, paranoid ideas, hallucinations, depression, forgetfulness, anxiety, mood swings, loss of interest, slurred speech and sleep disturbances. However, the disease per se is not fatal.


Following is the link to the original source:


6)

Late-stage PD and weight loss

People with PD may face significant weight loss at the later stages of disease. This is primarily due to various factors including loss of appetite and high energy expenditure.

Loss of Appetite may be due to reduced sense of smell, depression and nausea due to side effects of medication.

High energy expenditure may result from tremors, dyskinesia and rigidity. These may burn more calories than one can imagine.


Following is the link to the original source:


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